The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics today reported that there were 3.1 million jobs associated with "Green Goods and Services" in the U.S. in 2010 (representing 2.4% of total employment). The complete announcement follows below (and can be found here on the BLS website). Additional data tables and related information can be found on the Green Goods and Services section of the BLS website.
Green Goods and Services News Release For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, March 22, 2012 USDL-12-0495 Technical information: (202) 691-5185 * GGSInfo@bls.gov * www.bls.gov/ggs Media contact: (202) 691-5902 * PressOffice@bls.gov EMPLOYMENT IN GREEN GOODS AND SERVICES - 2010 In 2010, 3.1 million jobs in the United States were associated with the production of green goods and services, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Green Goods and Services (GGS) jobs are found in businesses that produce goods and provide services that benefit the environment or conserve natural resources. GGS jobs accounted for 2.4 percent of total employment in 2010. The private sector had 2.3 million GGS jobs and the public sector had 860,300. Manufacturing had 461,800 GGS jobs, the most among any private sector industry. (See table 1.) Among the states, California had the largest number of GGS jobs (338,400), accounting for 2.3 percent of employment in the state. Vermont had the highest proportion of GGS employment at 4.4 percent; the District of Columbia had the second highest at 3.9 percent. (See table 4.) The GGS employment data are compiled through the Green Goods and Services survey under the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program. The GGS survey includes approximately 120,000 business and government establishments within 333 industries that are identified as potentially producing green goods or providing green services. Establishments in the sample report whether they produced green goods and services and the percentage of their revenue or employment associated with that output. Those percentages are multiplied by their employment to derive the number of GGS jobs for the establishment. More information about the survey is provided in the Technical Note. Private Industry The private sector had 2,268,800 total GGS jobs in 2010. The manufacturing industry had the greatest number of GGS private jobs (461,800). (See table A.) These jobs were 4.0 percent of manufacturing employment. Examples of green goods and services produced by manufacturing industries include iron and steel from recycled inputs, air conditioning and refrigeration equipment meeting selected standards, hybrid cars and parts, and pollution mitigation equipment. Construction had 372,100 GGS jobs, comprising 6.8 percent of construction employment. Among the GGS activities performed within this industry are the construction of plants that produce energy from renewable sources and weatherizing and retrofitting projects that reduce household energy consumption. Professional, scientific, and technical services had 349,000 GGS jobs, accounting for 4.7 percent of the industry’s employment. Industries within professional, scientific, and technical services that have GGS output include engineering and architectural services, computer systems design, and management and consulting services. Administrative and waste services accounted for 319,900 GGS jobs, 4.3 percent of industry employment. Waste collection and remediation services are examples of GGS services within administrative and waste services. Table A. GGS employment level and share of total, by private industry, 2010 annual averages ------------------------------------------------------------ | | GGS | GGS NAICS | Industry | employment | percent(1) ------------------------------------------------------------ 10 |Total private, | | | all industries......... | 2,268,824 | 2.1 11,21 |Natural resources | | |and mining.............. | 65,050 | 3.6 22 |Utilities............... | 65,664 | 11.9 23 |Construction............ | 372,077 | 6.8 31-33 |Manufacturing........... | 461,847 | 4.0 42, | | | 44-45 |Trade................... | 202,370 | 1.0 48-49 |Transportation | | |and warehousing......... | 245,057 | 6.2 51 |Information............. | 37,163 | 1.4 52,53 |Financial activities.... | 190 | 0.0 54 |Professional, scientific,| | |and technical services.. | 349,024 | 4.7 55 |Management of companies | | |and enterprises......... | 34,711 | 1.9 56 |Administrative | | |and waste services...... | 319,915 | 4.3 61,62 |Education and | | |health services......... | 37,069 | 0.2 71,72 |Leisure and hospitality. | 22,510 | 0.2 81 |Other services, except | | |public administration... | 56,174 | 1.3 ------------------------------------------------------------- 1 GGS percent is the percentage of the GGS employment compared to the 2010 average annual employment data from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. NOTE: Data may not add to total due to rounding. Utilities In private industry, the utilities industry accounted for 65,700 GGS jobs, or 11.9 percent of total private utilities employment. Among the industries involved in private sector electric power generation, nuclear power had the highest GGS employment with 35,800 jobs in 2010. Hydroelectric power generation had 3,700 total private GGS jobs in 2010. (See tables 2 and 3.) The other electric power generation industry, which includes electricity generated from biomass, sunlight, wind, and other renewable sources, had 4,700 GGS private sector jobs. Within this industry, electricity generated from wind had the highest employment with 2,200 jobs, followed by biomass with 1,100 jobs, geothermal with 600 jobs, and solar with 400 jobs. Government The public sector had 860,300 GGS jobs in 2010, or 4.0 percent of public sector employment. Local government had the largest portion of GGS employment in the public sector, with 476,500 GGS jobs representing 3.4 percent of total local government employment. The transportation and warehousing sector, which encompasses mass transit systems, had the largest GGS employment in local government with 228,900 GGS jobs. (See table 2.) State government had 227,100 GGS jobs accounting for 4.9 percent of state government employment. The public administration sector was the largest industry in state government, having 141,700 GGS jobs in 2010. This industry includes the enforcement of environmental regulations and the administration of environmental programs. The federal government had 156,700 GGS jobs representing 5.3 percent of federal government employment. As was the case with state government, most GGS jobs in federal government were in the public administration sector, which had 128,300 jobs. The leisure and hospitality sector, which includes national parks, had the second largest GGS employment in federal government with 13,500 jobs. Geographic Detail The states with over 100,000 GGS jobs in 2010 were California (338,400), New York (248,500), Texas (229,700), Pennsylvania (182,200), Illinois (139,800), and Ohio (126,900). (See table 4.) California had the highest GGS employment in the United States, with 338,400 GGS jobs representing 2.3 percent of the state's total employment. Construction had the largest number of private sector GGS jobs in California (39,600), followed by administrative and waste services (39,300); professional, scientific, and technical services (39,200); and manufacturing (31,200). (See table 6.) New York had 248,500 GGS jobs or 3.0 percent of the state’s total employment. In New York, the transportation and warehousing industry had the largest amount of GGS jobs (32,000), followed by construction (21,100), professional, scientific, and technical services (20,600), and administrative and waste services (20,600). Texas had 229,700 GGS jobs or 2.3 percent of the state’s total employment. Professional, scientific, and technical services had the largest number of GGS jobs in the state (35,800), followed by construction (34,300) and manufacturing (27,400). Vermont had the highest percentage of GGS total employment of any jurisdiction (4.4 percent). The District of Columbia had the next highest proportion of its employment in GGS jobs (3.9 percent). Background Definition The BLS green jobs definition contains two components, an output-based approach and a process-based approach. Output-based jobs are jobs associated with producing goods or providing services that benefit the environment or conserve natural resources. Process-based jobs are jobs in which workers' duties involve making their establishment's production processes more environmentally friendly or use fewer natural resources. This news release covers the output approach only. The process approach data will be released later this year. The output based approach estimates the number of jobs associated with producing green goods or providing green services. The BLS output definition of GGS employment does not include workers from all industries. BLS identified 333 industries from the 1,193 detailed industries in the 2007 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) that potentially provide goods and services that directly benefit the environment or conserve natural resources. These 333 industries, the GGS scope, consist of industries that may produce green goods and services within one or more of the following five groups: 1. Energy from renewable sources. 2. Energy efficiency equipment, appliances, buildings and vehicles, and goods and services that improve the energy efficiency of buildings and the efficiency of energy storage and distribution. 3. Pollution reduction and removal, greenhouse gas reduction, and recycling and reuse goods and services. 4. Organic agriculture; sustainable forestry; and soil, water, and wildlife conservation. 5. Governmental and regulatory administration; and education, training, and advocacy goods and services. The GGS scope was identified by BLS after consultations with industry groups, government agencies, stakeholders, and the public, which helped BLS identify industries that potentially provide green goods or services. Not every activity or product in the industries within the GGS scope is considered green. An establishment classified in one of these 333 NAICS industries may produce only green goods, both green and non-green goods, or only non-green goods. Only the employment associated with the production of green goods and services within these selected industries is counted as GGS jobs. BLS recognizes that establishments producing green goods and services may fall outside of the GGS scope, and the associated employment will not be counted in the GGS survey results. GGS Scope The GGS scope contained 24,060,000 jobs, or 18.8 percent of the nation's total employment. Of these jobs, GGS estimates that 3,129,100 jobs, or 2.4 percent of total employment, were related to producing goods and services that met the BLS GGS definition. (For more information regarding the GGS definition and methodology, please see the Technical Note.) Table B. Employment by frame, 2010 annual averages -------------------------------------------------------------- | Employment | Percent of Aggregation | level | total employment -------------------------------------------------------------- Total US covered employment(1) |127,820,400 | 100.0 GGS in-scope(1) | 25,513,300 | 20.0 GGS employment | 3,129,100 | 2.4 -------------------------------------------------------------- 1 Source: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages Data Presentation Data includes GGS employment, GGS employment percentage, and total QCEW employment by industry and state. The total employment levels are from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). The QCEW includes all businesses with employees covered by state or federal unemployment insurance, which is approximately 95.3 percent of civilian wage and salary employment in the U.S. For More Information The tables and charts included in this release contain data for the nation and for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data for 2010 green employment levels and percents for all states are provided in tables 4, 5, and 6 of this release. For additional information about the Green Goods and Services data, please read the Technical Note. Further information about the GGS data may be obtained by calling (202) 691-5185 or by accessing the GGS website at www.bls.gov/ggs. Technical Note This release presents statistics from the Green Goods and Services program (GGS). GGS employment level and rate estimates are published by state, ownership, and industry. Data for GGS are collected and compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from a sample of business and government establishments in selected industries with workers covered by state and federal unemployment insurance (UI) legislation provided by State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). Collection In an annual survey of business establishments, data are collected for employment, fiscal year, and the share of revenue or employment associated with production of green goods or services at the establishment level. Data collection methods include mail, computer- assisted telephone interviewing, web, and fax. Coverage BLS sampled from 333 North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industries identified as potential producers or providers of green goods and services. The GGS survey covers all private establishments in these industries, such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. For a list of these industries, please refer to the GGS Web site at www.bls.gov/ggs. Concepts Green Goods and Services. Green goods and services are defined as goods and services produced by an establishment that benefit the environment or conserve natural resources. Green goods and services fall into one or more of the following five groups: (1) production of energy from renewable sources; (2) energy efficiency; (3) pollution reduction and removal, greenhouse gas reduction, and recycling and reuse; (4) natural resources conservation; and (5) environmental compliance, education and training, and public awareness. Industry classification. The industry classifications in this release are in accordance with the 2007 version of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Only the 333 industries identified by BLS as producing green goods and providing green services are included in the scope of the GGS survey. To ensure the highest possible quality of data, the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program verifies with employers and updates, if necessary, the NAICS code, location, and ownership classification of all establishments on a 3- year cycle. Changes in establishment characteristics resulting from the verification process are annually introduced into the GGS sampling frame. Green Goods and Services jobs. GGS jobs are those associated with producing green goods or providing green services. Some businesses produce multiple products and services where one or more may be included in the BLS definition. For these cases, BLS determined from prior research that businesses often have difficulty providing employment associated with the production of green goods and services, while information on the revenue from the sale of the green goods or services is more readily available and less burdensome for the respondent to provide. The percentage of the establishment’s revenue related to sale of green goods and services is used to estimate GGS jobs, which are defined as employment related to the production of green goods and services at the establishment level. Sampled establishments that do not generate revenue are asked to report the share of their employment involved with the production of green goods and services. For example, employment related to research and development, non-profit organizations, government agencies, and new businesses may provide green goods and services without generating income. Employment. Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or received pay for the pay period that includes the twelfth day of the reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period, are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where they are working. The monthly employment figure provided by respondents will be compared to employment data BLS has on file as part of the QCEW program, which comprise BLS’ business register, in order to verify that data are being collected for the correct establishment. Estimates Estimates of GGS employment and GGS percent of total QCEW employment are released with the annual GGS news release. Sample and estimation methodology Sample BLS selects approximately 120,000 GGS establishments per year from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program. This program includes all employers subject to state Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws and federal agencies subject to Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE). Most of these establishments are selected from the second quarter QCEW sample frame, while a small sample of new business establishments is selected from the third and fourth quarters. The sample is designed to estimate GGS employment at both national industry and state industry sector levels of detail. Beginning in the second year of collection, the GGS sample will be divided into three panels, each containing approximately 40,000 sample units. Two of the three panel samples will overlap with the previous year’s sample to produce estimates of change in green employment. The panel that does not overlap will have a new sample allocated and selected. Estimation A Horvitz-Thompson estimator is used to estimate GGS employment. GGS percentage estimates are relative to the QCEW employment of all industries contained within a particular estimation cell’s NAICS code, not just the 333 industries included in the GGS scope. For GGS employment percentages, the estimate of GGS employment is divided by the 12-month average of QCEW employment over the reference period. Reliability GGS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. Sampling error arises from selecting a sample of establishments rather than the entire business population. To measure this error, GGS uses a balanced repeated replication technique to calculate standard errors. At the typical 90% level of confidence used in BLS analyses, there is approximately a 90% chance that GGS sample-based estimates of GGS employment will not differ from the true population totals by more than 1.645 standard errors. Thus, GGS calculates the width of its 90% confidence interval for total GGS employment as 1.645 multiplied by the standard error. The confidence interval width of the total GGS employment estimate is approximately 56,000. There is about a 90% chance that the true population total of GGS employment falls within 56,000 of the GGS estimate. For the estimate of total green percentage, there is about a 90% chance that the GGS estimate is within 0.03%. Nonsampling error arises from various sources, such as establishments failing to respond or misreporting data, coding and data processing errors and sample coverage. Since GGS only samples establishments in 333 industries predetermined to potentially have GGS employment, any green goods and services produced or provided in other industries is not captured. GGS is also subject to errors in the sampling frame, in which some establishments’ industry codes may be misclassified. Specialized Procedures GGS sampling methodology is coordinated with the Occupational Employment Statistics survey. Sampling overlap between the two surveys is maximized for additional inference to be made about green staffing patterns. Such inferences are not included as part of this GGS release. Other information Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.