New Book on Green Jobs to be Released in June

A new book on green jobs, Decent Work, Green Jobs and the Sustainable Economy: Solutions for Climate Change and Sustainable Development From the World of Work, will be released in June by Greenleaf Publishing. Below is a summary of the book provided by the publisher:

This book provides a comprehensive overview of climate change, sustainable development and decent work. It addresses the challenges of achieving environmental sustainability and turning the vision of decent work for all into a reality. It also demonstrates that green jobs can be a key economic driver as the world steps into the largely uncharted territory of building a sustainable and low-carbon global economy. Author Peter Poschen shows that positive outcomes are possible but require a clear understanding of the opportunities and challenges as well as country-specific policies that integrate environmental social and decent work elements. The opportunities for gains may in fact be greatest in developing countries and emerging economies.

You can learn more about this new book here.

3.1 Million Green Jobs in the United States in 2010 (2.4% of Total Employment), According to U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics today reported that there were 3.1 million jobs associated with "Green Goods and Services" in the U.S. in 2010 (representing 2.4% of total employment).  The complete announcement follows below (and can be found here on the BLS website).  Additional data tables and related information can be found on the Green Goods and Services section of the BLS website.

Green Goods and Services News Release
For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, March 22, 2012                   USDL-12-0495
Technical information:  (202) 691-5185 * *
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902 *
In 2010, 3.1 million jobs in the United States were associated with
the production of green goods and services, the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics reported today. Green Goods and Services (GGS) jobs are
found in businesses that produce goods and provide services that
benefit the environment or conserve natural resources. GGS jobs
accounted for 2.4 percent of total employment in 2010. The private
sector had 2.3 million GGS jobs and the public sector had 860,300.
Manufacturing had 461,800 GGS jobs, the most among any private sector
industry. (See table 1.)
Among the states, California had the largest number of GGS jobs
(338,400), accounting for 2.3 percent of employment in the state.
Vermont had the highest proportion of GGS employment at 4.4 percent;
the District of Columbia had the second highest at 3.9 percent. (See
table 4.)
The GGS employment data are compiled through the Green Goods and
Services survey under the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW) program. The GGS survey includes approximately 120,000 business
and government establishments within 333 industries that are
identified as potentially producing green goods or providing green
services. Establishments in the sample report whether they produced
green goods and services and the percentage of their revenue or
employment associated with that output. Those percentages are
multiplied by their employment to derive the number of GGS jobs for
the establishment. More information about the survey is provided in
the Technical Note.
Private Industry
The private sector had 2,268,800 total GGS jobs in 2010. The
manufacturing industry had the greatest number of GGS private jobs
(461,800). (See table A.) These jobs were 4.0 percent of manufacturing
employment. Examples of green goods and services produced by
manufacturing industries include iron and steel from recycled inputs,
air conditioning and refrigeration equipment meeting selected
standards, hybrid cars and parts, and pollution mitigation equipment.
Construction had 372,100 GGS jobs, comprising 6.8 percent of
construction employment. Among the GGS activities performed within
this industry are the construction of plants that produce energy from
renewable sources and weatherizing and retrofitting projects that
reduce household energy consumption.
Professional, scientific, and technical services had 349,000 GGS jobs,
accounting for 4.7 percent of the industry’s employment. Industries
within professional, scientific, and technical services that have GGS
output include engineering and architectural services, computer
systems design, and management and consulting services.
Administrative and waste services accounted for 319,900 GGS jobs, 4.3
percent of industry employment. Waste collection and remediation
services are examples of GGS services within administrative and waste
Table A. GGS employment level and share of total,
by private industry, 2010 annual averages
|			  |    GGS     |   GGS
NAICS	|      Industry		  | employment | percent(1)
10	|Total private,		  |	       |
| all industries......... |  2,268,824 |   2.1
11,21	|Natural resources        |  	       |
|and mining.............. |     65,050 |   3.6
22	|Utilities............... |     65,664 |  11.9
23	|Construction............ |    372,077 |   6.8
31-33	|Manufacturing........... |    461,847 |   4.0
42,	|			  |  	       |
44-45 	|Trade................... |    202,370 |   1.0
48-49	|Transportation 	  |  	       |
|and warehousing......... |    245,057 |   6.2
51	|Information............. |     37,163 |   1.4
52,53	|Financial activities.... |        190 |   0.0
54	|Professional, scientific,|   	       |
|and technical services.. |    349,024 |   4.7
55	|Management of companies  |  	       |
|and enterprises......... |     34,711 |   1.9
56	|Administrative 	  |            |
|and waste services...... |    319,915 |   4.3
61,62	|Education and 		  |  	       |
|health services......... |     37,069 |   0.2
71,72	|Leisure and hospitality. |     22,510 |   0.2
81	|Other services, except   |  	       |
|public administration... |     56,174 |   1.3
1 GGS percent is the percentage of the GGS employment
compared to the 2010 average annual employment data from the
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages.
NOTE:  Data may not add to total due to rounding.
In private industry, the utilities industry accounted for 65,700 GGS
jobs, or 11.9 percent of total private utilities employment. Among the
industries involved in private sector electric power generation,
nuclear power had the highest GGS employment with 35,800 jobs in 2010.
Hydroelectric power generation had 3,700 total private GGS jobs in
2010. (See tables 2 and 3.)
The other electric power generation industry, which includes
electricity generated from biomass, sunlight, wind, and other
renewable sources, had 4,700 GGS private sector jobs. Within this
industry, electricity generated from wind had the highest employment
with 2,200 jobs, followed by biomass with 1,100 jobs, geothermal with
600 jobs, and solar with 400 jobs.
The public sector had 860,300 GGS jobs in 2010, or 4.0 percent of
public sector employment. Local government had the largest portion of
GGS employment in the public sector, with 476,500 GGS jobs
representing 3.4 percent of total local government employment. The
transportation and warehousing sector, which encompasses mass transit
systems, had the largest GGS employment in local government with
228,900 GGS jobs. (See table 2.)
State government had 227,100 GGS jobs accounting for 4.9 percent of
state government employment. The public administration sector was the
largest industry in state government, having 141,700 GGS jobs in 2010.
This industry includes the enforcement of environmental regulations
and the administration of environmental programs.
The federal government had 156,700 GGS jobs representing 5.3 percent
of federal government employment. As was the case with state
government, most GGS jobs in federal government were in the public
administration sector, which had 128,300 jobs. The leisure and
hospitality sector, which includes national parks, had the second
largest GGS employment in federal government with 13,500 jobs.
Geographic Detail
The states with over 100,000 GGS jobs in 2010 were California
(338,400), New York (248,500), Texas (229,700), Pennsylvania
(182,200), Illinois (139,800), and Ohio (126,900). (See table 4.)
California had the highest GGS employment in the United States, with
338,400 GGS jobs representing 2.3 percent of the state's total
employment. Construction had the largest number of private sector GGS
jobs in California (39,600), followed by administrative and waste
services (39,300); professional, scientific, and technical services
(39,200); and manufacturing (31,200). (See table 6.)
New York had 248,500 GGS jobs or 3.0 percent of the state’s total
employment. In New York, the transportation and warehousing industry
had the largest amount of GGS jobs (32,000), followed by construction
(21,100), professional, scientific, and technical services (20,600),
and administrative and waste services (20,600).
Texas had 229,700 GGS jobs or 2.3 percent of the state’s total
employment. Professional, scientific, and technical services had the
largest number of GGS jobs in the state (35,800), followed by
construction (34,300) and manufacturing (27,400).
Vermont had the highest percentage of GGS total employment of any
jurisdiction (4.4 percent). The District of Columbia had the next
highest proportion of its employment in GGS jobs (3.9 percent).
The BLS green jobs definition contains two components, an output-based
approach and a process-based approach. Output-based jobs are jobs
associated with producing goods or providing services that benefit the
environment or conserve natural resources. Process-based jobs are jobs
in which workers' duties involve making their establishment's
production processes more environmentally friendly or use fewer
natural resources.
This news release covers the output approach only.  The process
approach data will be released later this year.
The output based approach estimates the number of jobs associated with
producing green goods or providing green services. The BLS output
definition of GGS employment does not include workers from all
industries. BLS identified 333 industries from the 1,193 detailed
industries in the 2007 North American Industry Classification System
(NAICS) that potentially provide goods and services that directly
benefit the environment or conserve natural resources. These 333
industries, the GGS scope, consist of industries that may produce
green goods and services within one or more of the following five
1.  Energy from renewable sources.
2.  Energy efficiency equipment, appliances, buildings and vehicles,
and goods and services that improve the energy efficiency of buildings
and the efficiency of energy storage and distribution.
3.  Pollution reduction and removal, greenhouse gas reduction, and
recycling and reuse goods and services.
4.  Organic agriculture; sustainable forestry; and soil, water, and
wildlife conservation.
5.  Governmental and regulatory administration; and education,
training, and advocacy goods and services.
The GGS scope was identified by BLS after consultations with industry
groups, government agencies, stakeholders, and the public, which
helped BLS identify industries that potentially provide green goods or
services. Not every activity or product in the industries within the
GGS scope is considered green. An establishment classified in one of
these 333 NAICS industries may produce only green goods, both green
and non-green goods, or only non-green goods. Only the employment
associated with the production of green goods and services within
these selected industries is counted as GGS jobs. BLS recognizes that
establishments producing green goods and services may fall outside of
the GGS scope, and the associated employment will not be counted in
the GGS survey results.
GGS Scope
The GGS scope contained 24,060,000 jobs, or 18.8 percent of the
nation's total employment. Of these jobs, GGS estimates that 3,129,100
jobs, or 2.4 percent of total employment, were related to producing
goods and services that met the BLS GGS definition. (For more
information regarding the GGS definition and methodology, please see
the Technical Note.)
Table B. Employment by frame, 2010 annual averages
| Employment |   Percent of
Aggregation	       |   level    | total employment
Total US covered employment(1) |127,820,400 |	   100.0
GGS in-scope(1)		       | 25,513,300 |	    20.0
GGS employment		       |  3,129,100 |	     2.4
1 Source: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
Data Presentation
Data includes GGS employment, GGS employment percentage, and total
QCEW employment by industry and state. The total employment levels are
from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). The QCEW
includes all businesses with employees covered by state or federal
unemployment insurance, which is approximately 95.3 percent of
civilian wage and salary employment in the U.S.
For More Information
The tables and charts included in this release contain data for the
nation and for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data for
2010 green employment levels and percents for all states are provided
in tables 4, 5, and 6 of this release.
For additional information about the Green Goods and Services data,
please read the Technical Note. Further information about the GGS data
may be obtained by calling (202) 691-5185 or by accessing the GGS
website at
Technical Note
This release presents statistics from the Green Goods and Services
program (GGS). GGS employment level and rate estimates are published
by state, ownership, and industry. Data for GGS are collected and
compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from a sample of business
and government establishments in selected industries with workers
covered by state and federal unemployment insurance (UI) legislation
provided by State Workforce Agencies (SWAs).
In an annual survey of business establishments, data are collected for
employment, fiscal year, and the share of revenue or employment
associated with production of green goods or services at the
establishment level. Data collection methods include mail, computer-
assisted telephone interviewing, web, and fax.
BLS sampled from 333 North American Industrial Classification System
(NAICS) industries identified as potential producers or providers of
green goods and services. The GGS survey covers all private
establishments in these industries, such as factories, offices, and
stores, as well as federal, state, and local government entities in
the 50 states and the District of Columbia. For a list of these
industries, please refer to the GGS Web site at
Green Goods and Services. Green goods and services are defined as
goods and services produced by an establishment that benefit the
environment or conserve natural resources. Green goods and services
fall into one or more of the following five groups: (1) production of
energy from renewable sources; (2) energy efficiency; (3) pollution
reduction and removal, greenhouse gas reduction, and recycling and
reuse; (4) natural resources conservation; and (5) environmental
compliance, education and training, and public awareness.
Industry classification. The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2007 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS). Only the 333 industries identified by
BLS as producing green goods and providing green services are included
in the scope of the GGS survey. To ensure the highest possible quality
of data, the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program
verifies with employers and updates, if necessary, the NAICS code,
location, and ownership classification of all establishments on a 3-
year cycle. Changes in establishment characteristics resulting from
the verification process are annually introduced into the GGS sampling
Green Goods and Services jobs. GGS jobs are those associated with
producing green goods or providing green services. Some businesses
produce multiple products and services where one or more may be
included in the BLS definition. For these cases, BLS determined from
prior research that businesses often have difficulty providing
employment associated with the production of green goods and services,
while information on the revenue from the sale of the green goods or
services is more readily available and less burdensome for the
respondent to provide. The percentage of the establishment’s revenue
related to sale of green goods and services is used to estimate GGS
jobs, which are defined as employment related to the production of
green goods and services at the establishment level. Sampled
establishments that do not generate revenue are asked to report the
share of their employment involved with the production of green goods
and services. For example, employment related to research and
development, non-profit organizations, government agencies, and new
businesses may provide green goods and services without generating
Employment. Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the twelfth day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working. The monthly employment figure provided by
respondents will be compared to employment data BLS has on file as
part of the QCEW program, which comprise BLS’ business register, in
order to verify that data are being collected for the correct
Estimates of GGS employment and GGS percent of total QCEW
employment are released with the annual GGS news release.
Sample and estimation methodology
BLS selects approximately 120,000 GGS establishments per year
from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program.
This program includes all employers subject to state Unemployment
Insurance (UI) laws and federal agencies subject to Unemployment
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE). Most of these
establishments are selected from the second quarter QCEW sample frame,
while a small sample of new business establishments is selected from
the third and fourth quarters. The sample is designed to estimate GGS
employment at both national industry and state industry sector levels
of detail.
Beginning in the second year of collection, the GGS sample will be
divided into three panels, each containing approximately 40,000 sample
units. Two of the three panel samples will overlap with the previous
year’s sample to produce estimates of change in green employment. The
panel that does not overlap will have a new sample allocated and
A Horvitz-Thompson estimator is used to estimate GGS
GGS percentage estimates are relative to the QCEW employment of all
industries contained within a particular estimation cell’s NAICS code,
not just the 333 industries included in the GGS scope. For GGS
employment percentages, the estimate of GGS employment is divided by
the 12-month average of QCEW employment over the reference period.
GGS estimates are subject to both sampling and
nonsampling error. Sampling error arises from selecting a sample of
establishments rather than the entire business population. To measure
this error, GGS uses a balanced repeated replication technique to
calculate standard errors.
At the typical 90% level of confidence used in BLS analyses, there is
approximately a 90% chance that GGS sample-based estimates of GGS
employment will not differ from the true population totals by more
than 1.645 standard errors. Thus, GGS calculates the width of its 90%
confidence interval for total GGS employment as 1.645 multiplied by
the standard error. The confidence interval width of the total GGS
employment estimate is approximately 56,000.
There is about a 90% chance that the true population total of GGS
employment falls within 56,000 of the GGS estimate. For the estimate
of total green percentage, there is about a 90% chance that the GGS
estimate is within 0.03%.
Nonsampling error arises from various sources, such as establishments
failing to respond or misreporting data, coding and data processing
errors and sample coverage. Since GGS only samples establishments in
333 industries predetermined to potentially have GGS employment, any
green goods and services produced or provided in other industries is
not captured. GGS is also subject to errors in the sampling frame, in
which some establishments’ industry codes may be misclassified.
Specialized Procedures
GGS sampling methodology is coordinated with
the Occupational Employment Statistics survey. Sampling overlap
between the two surveys is maximized for additional inference to be
made about green staffing patterns. Such inferences are not included
as part of this GGS release.
Other information
Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

US Department of Labor Releases “Why Green is Your Color: A Woman’s Guide to a Sustainable Career”

Last month, the Women’s Bureau at the U.S. Department of Labor released a report entitled Why Green is Your Color: A Woman’s Guide to a Sustainable Career (PDF).  This publication is designed to help women find and keep higher paying jobs in the clean energy economy.

The report (which can be downloaded here) includes information on a range of in-demand and emerging jobs, as well as job training opportunities and career development tools, in the clean energy economy. The guide is also intended to serve as a resource for workforce development professionals, training providers, educators, career counselors, and women’s advocacy organizations.

"Many occupations in the clean energy economy remain virtually untapped by women," said Sara Manzano-Díaz, director of the Women’s Bureau. "This guide is an invaluable resource that workforce professionals can use to help women transition into higher paying jobs that serve as a pathway into the middle class. It is also a tool to help fight job segregation." 

The report is a result of nationwide roundtables at which leaders from the public and private sectors discussed opportunities for women in the clean energy economy. These conversations revealed that an overall lack of awareness and information about nontraditional jobs was a significant challenge to women wanting to succeed in this marketplace. Information about the roundtables is available at

More information on the Women's Bureau is available at 202-693-6710 or online at

MARC Green Consortium Releases Green Jobs Report and Website for DC, Maryland, and Virginia

Mid-Atlantic Regional Collaborative (MARC)

The Mid-Atlantic Regional Collaborative's (MARC) Green Consortium (a group of workforce and education leaders from DC, Maryland and Virginia) announced earlier this month the release of green workforce research reports and green job search resources at This project was funded through a $4 million competitive grant from the US Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

The research reports, Green Data for a Growing Green Economy, include the following findings:

  1. The green economy represents an estimated $34.8 billion in terms of DC, Maryland, and Virginia's gross regional product or GRP;
  2. 8-9% of region's employers with more than one employee have green jobs;
  3. 235,600 green jobs exist in the region and that number is expected to grow by 12% in the next two years;
  4. 50% of green jobs were concentrated in the construction, technical services, and education/policy sectors although green jobs were found in 300+ industries;
  5. The greatest number of green jobs are in energy efficiency and energy conservation;
  6. Green growth is projected in construction, professional, scientific, technical services and support, and waste management services;
  7. 75% of the region's green employers offered on-the-job training (OJT) for workers;
  8. 6,500 green jobs were available at the time of the mid-2010 survey and most openings did not require a degree;
  9. Jobs requiring a BA degree or above accounted for 69% of green employment in DC, 23% in Maryland, and 26% inVirginia; and
  10. In DC, the largest gaps (shortages of trained applicants for green jobs) are in the life, physical and social science, architecture and engineering, and business and financial operations occupations while in Maryland and Virginia, the business and financial operations and computer and mathematical occupations are more heavily impacted. 

A range of resources for job seekers and employers are available on the website, including a job search tool, a list of education and training providers, and information on job market trends. 

Brookings Institution Releases Green Jobs Report

Brookings Green Jobs Report

The Brookings Institution released a report on green jobs earlier this month entitled Sizing the Clean Economy: A National and Regional Green Jobs Assessment.  This report is based on the Brookings-Battelle Clean Economy Database, which is a collaborative effort of Brookings Metropolitan Policy PRogram and the Battelle Technology Partnership Program.

The report provides a variety of data on the size, growth, and geography of the “clean” or green economy and states that there were 2.7 milion jobs in this sector in 2010.  The definition of "clean economy" used in this report is: 

The clean economy is economic activity — measured in terms of establishments and the jobs associated with them — that produces goods and services with an environmental benefit or adds value to such products using skills or technologies that are uniquely applied to those products. 

You can downloaded the complete report and associated data from the sidebar on this page.  In addition, below is a video from the launch event of this report (more videos available here).

Texas Green Jobs Guidebook Released by Environmental Defense Fund

The Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) recently released the Texas Green Jobs Guidebook. This free publication includes the following:

  • Profiles of more than 200 green jobs emerging or already available in Texas, including salary and educational requirements.
  • Resources for finding apprentice programs.
  • A user-friendly directory, reviewed by the Texas Workforce Commission, for all job seekers regardless of their current skill set.

You can download this guide (800K PDF) via this link.

“2008 Green Economy Jobs in Washington State” Report Released

On January 29th, Washington State Governor Chris Gregoire announced the results of a study completed by economists at the state's Employment Security Department, entitled 2008 Green Economy Jobs in Washington State

This report presents the results of a survey of more than 9,500 private-sector employers in Washington state.  The goal of the survey was to identify the number and type of jobs in the state’s emerging green economy and to establish a baseline measure that can be used to track industry and job growth in Washington’s “green economy.”  The study estimates that private-sector businesses and industries in Washington directly employ more than 47,000 people in green jobs, with approximately 87 percent of them being full-time workers.

The report defines green jobs as those that promote a healthy environment and energy security in four key business and industry sectors: energy efficiency, renewable energy, preventing and reducing pollution, and mitigating or cleaning up pollution.  The report can be downloaded by clicking on the image below:

2008 Green Economy Jobs in Washington State

American Solar Energy Society (ASES) Releases Green Collar Jobs Report

The American Solar Energy Society (ASES) today released a report Green Collar Jobs in the U.S. and Colorado: Economic Drivers for the 21st Century that documents 2007 job levels and projects future employment for green jobs in the U.S. and the state of Colorado.  This report was produced by Management Information Services, Inc (MISI) and is a follow-up to a report issued in November 2007.

This report defines "green jobs" as those pertaining to the renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) industries, specifically:

A job in the RE industry consists of an employee working in one of the major RE technologies—wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal, hydroelectric power, geothermal, biomass (ethanol, biodiesel, and biomass power), and fuel cells and hydrogen.

A job in the EE industry consists of an employee working in a sector that is entirely part of the EE industry, such as an energy service company (ESCO) or the recycling, reuse, and remanufacturing sector. It also includes some employees in industries in which only a portion of the output is classified as within the EE sector, such as household appliances, HVAC systems, construction, automobile manufacturing, and others.

Finally, in this study, jobs in RE&EE include persons involved in RE&EE activities in federal, state, and local government, universities, nonprofits, trade and professional associations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), foundations, consultancies, investment companies (analysts, for example), and other related organizations.

Key conclusions from the report include:

  • Renewable energy and energy efficiency currently provide more than 9 million jobs and $1,045 billion in revenue in the U.S. (2007). The previous year (2006) renewable energy and energy efficiency represented 8.5 million jobs and $972 billion in revenue.
  • 95% of the jobs are in private industry.
  • As many as 37 million jobs can be generated by the renewable energy and energy efficiency industries in the U.S. by 2030 – more than 17% of all anticipated U.S. employment.
  • Hottest sectors include solar thermal, solar photovoltaics, biofuels, and fuel cells (in terms of revenue growth).
  • Hot job areas include electricians, mechanical engineers, welders, metal workers, construction managers, accountants, analysts, environmental scientists, and chemists. The vast majority of jobs created by the renewable energy and energy efficiency industries are in the same types of roles seen in other industries (accountants, factory workers, IT professionals, etc).
  • Renewable energy and energy efficiency can create millions of well-paying jobs, many of which are not subject to foreign outsourcing. These jobs are in two categories that every state is eager to attract – college-educated professional workers (many with advanced degrees), and highly skilled technical workers.
  • The renewable energy industry grew more than three times as fast as the U.S. economy in 2007 (not including hydropower). Renewable energy is also growing more rapidly than the energy efficiency industry, but the energy efficiency industry is currently much larger than the renewable energy industry.

“There’s a new sense of optimism in the green economy,” said ASES Executive Director Brad Collins. “But while the U.S. could see million of new jobs in renewable energy and energy efficiency, this will only happen with the necessary leadership, research, development, and public policy at the federal and state levels.

The report can be downloaded for free at or by clicking the image below.  Additional green jobs reports can be found here.

Green Collar Jobs in the U.S. and Colorado: Economic Drivers for the 21st Century

For more information: