3.1 Million Green Jobs in the United States in 2010 (2.4% of Total Employment), According to U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics today reported that there were 3.1 million jobs associated with "Green Goods and Services" in the U.S. in 2010 (representing 2.4% of total employment).  The complete announcement follows below (and can be found here on the BLS website).  Additional data tables and related information can be found on the Green Goods and Services section of the BLS website.

Green Goods and Services News Release
For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, March 22, 2012                   USDL-12-0495
Technical information:  (202) 691-5185 * GGSInfo@bls.gov * www.bls.gov/ggs
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902 * PressOffice@bls.gov
In 2010, 3.1 million jobs in the United States were associated with
the production of green goods and services, the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics reported today. Green Goods and Services (GGS) jobs are
found in businesses that produce goods and provide services that
benefit the environment or conserve natural resources. GGS jobs
accounted for 2.4 percent of total employment in 2010. The private
sector had 2.3 million GGS jobs and the public sector had 860,300.
Manufacturing had 461,800 GGS jobs, the most among any private sector
industry. (See table 1.)
Among the states, California had the largest number of GGS jobs
(338,400), accounting for 2.3 percent of employment in the state.
Vermont had the highest proportion of GGS employment at 4.4 percent;
the District of Columbia had the second highest at 3.9 percent. (See
table 4.)
The GGS employment data are compiled through the Green Goods and
Services survey under the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW) program. The GGS survey includes approximately 120,000 business
and government establishments within 333 industries that are
identified as potentially producing green goods or providing green
services. Establishments in the sample report whether they produced
green goods and services and the percentage of their revenue or
employment associated with that output. Those percentages are
multiplied by their employment to derive the number of GGS jobs for
the establishment. More information about the survey is provided in
the Technical Note.
Private Industry
The private sector had 2,268,800 total GGS jobs in 2010. The
manufacturing industry had the greatest number of GGS private jobs
(461,800). (See table A.) These jobs were 4.0 percent of manufacturing
employment. Examples of green goods and services produced by
manufacturing industries include iron and steel from recycled inputs,
air conditioning and refrigeration equipment meeting selected
standards, hybrid cars and parts, and pollution mitigation equipment.
Construction had 372,100 GGS jobs, comprising 6.8 percent of
construction employment. Among the GGS activities performed within
this industry are the construction of plants that produce energy from
renewable sources and weatherizing and retrofitting projects that
reduce household energy consumption.
Professional, scientific, and technical services had 349,000 GGS jobs,
accounting for 4.7 percent of the industry’s employment. Industries
within professional, scientific, and technical services that have GGS
output include engineering and architectural services, computer
systems design, and management and consulting services.
Administrative and waste services accounted for 319,900 GGS jobs, 4.3
percent of industry employment. Waste collection and remediation
services are examples of GGS services within administrative and waste
Table A. GGS employment level and share of total,
by private industry, 2010 annual averages
|			  |    GGS     |   GGS
NAICS	|      Industry		  | employment | percent(1)
10	|Total private,		  |	       |
| all industries......... |  2,268,824 |   2.1
11,21	|Natural resources        |  	       |
|and mining.............. |     65,050 |   3.6
22	|Utilities............... |     65,664 |  11.9
23	|Construction............ |    372,077 |   6.8
31-33	|Manufacturing........... |    461,847 |   4.0
42,	|			  |  	       |
44-45 	|Trade................... |    202,370 |   1.0
48-49	|Transportation 	  |  	       |
|and warehousing......... |    245,057 |   6.2
51	|Information............. |     37,163 |   1.4
52,53	|Financial activities.... |        190 |   0.0
54	|Professional, scientific,|   	       |
|and technical services.. |    349,024 |   4.7
55	|Management of companies  |  	       |
|and enterprises......... |     34,711 |   1.9
56	|Administrative 	  |            |
|and waste services...... |    319,915 |   4.3
61,62	|Education and 		  |  	       |
|health services......... |     37,069 |   0.2
71,72	|Leisure and hospitality. |     22,510 |   0.2
81	|Other services, except   |  	       |
|public administration... |     56,174 |   1.3
1 GGS percent is the percentage of the GGS employment
compared to the 2010 average annual employment data from the
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages.
NOTE:  Data may not add to total due to rounding.
In private industry, the utilities industry accounted for 65,700 GGS
jobs, or 11.9 percent of total private utilities employment. Among the
industries involved in private sector electric power generation,
nuclear power had the highest GGS employment with 35,800 jobs in 2010.
Hydroelectric power generation had 3,700 total private GGS jobs in
2010. (See tables 2 and 3.)
The other electric power generation industry, which includes
electricity generated from biomass, sunlight, wind, and other
renewable sources, had 4,700 GGS private sector jobs. Within this
industry, electricity generated from wind had the highest employment
with 2,200 jobs, followed by biomass with 1,100 jobs, geothermal with
600 jobs, and solar with 400 jobs.
The public sector had 860,300 GGS jobs in 2010, or 4.0 percent of
public sector employment. Local government had the largest portion of
GGS employment in the public sector, with 476,500 GGS jobs
representing 3.4 percent of total local government employment. The
transportation and warehousing sector, which encompasses mass transit
systems, had the largest GGS employment in local government with
228,900 GGS jobs. (See table 2.)
State government had 227,100 GGS jobs accounting for 4.9 percent of
state government employment. The public administration sector was the
largest industry in state government, having 141,700 GGS jobs in 2010.
This industry includes the enforcement of environmental regulations
and the administration of environmental programs.
The federal government had 156,700 GGS jobs representing 5.3 percent
of federal government employment. As was the case with state
government, most GGS jobs in federal government were in the public
administration sector, which had 128,300 jobs. The leisure and
hospitality sector, which includes national parks, had the second
largest GGS employment in federal government with 13,500 jobs.
Geographic Detail
The states with over 100,000 GGS jobs in 2010 were California
(338,400), New York (248,500), Texas (229,700), Pennsylvania
(182,200), Illinois (139,800), and Ohio (126,900). (See table 4.)
California had the highest GGS employment in the United States, with
338,400 GGS jobs representing 2.3 percent of the state's total
employment. Construction had the largest number of private sector GGS
jobs in California (39,600), followed by administrative and waste
services (39,300); professional, scientific, and technical services
(39,200); and manufacturing (31,200). (See table 6.)
New York had 248,500 GGS jobs or 3.0 percent of the state’s total
employment. In New York, the transportation and warehousing industry
had the largest amount of GGS jobs (32,000), followed by construction
(21,100), professional, scientific, and technical services (20,600),
and administrative and waste services (20,600).
Texas had 229,700 GGS jobs or 2.3 percent of the state’s total
employment. Professional, scientific, and technical services had the
largest number of GGS jobs in the state (35,800), followed by
construction (34,300) and manufacturing (27,400).
Vermont had the highest percentage of GGS total employment of any
jurisdiction (4.4 percent). The District of Columbia had the next
highest proportion of its employment in GGS jobs (3.9 percent).
The BLS green jobs definition contains two components, an output-based
approach and a process-based approach. Output-based jobs are jobs
associated with producing goods or providing services that benefit the
environment or conserve natural resources. Process-based jobs are jobs
in which workers' duties involve making their establishment's
production processes more environmentally friendly or use fewer
natural resources.
This news release covers the output approach only.  The process
approach data will be released later this year.
The output based approach estimates the number of jobs associated with
producing green goods or providing green services. The BLS output
definition of GGS employment does not include workers from all
industries. BLS identified 333 industries from the 1,193 detailed
industries in the 2007 North American Industry Classification System
(NAICS) that potentially provide goods and services that directly
benefit the environment or conserve natural resources. These 333
industries, the GGS scope, consist of industries that may produce
green goods and services within one or more of the following five
1.  Energy from renewable sources.
2.  Energy efficiency equipment, appliances, buildings and vehicles,
and goods and services that improve the energy efficiency of buildings
and the efficiency of energy storage and distribution.
3.  Pollution reduction and removal, greenhouse gas reduction, and
recycling and reuse goods and services.
4.  Organic agriculture; sustainable forestry; and soil, water, and
wildlife conservation.
5.  Governmental and regulatory administration; and education,
training, and advocacy goods and services.
The GGS scope was identified by BLS after consultations with industry
groups, government agencies, stakeholders, and the public, which
helped BLS identify industries that potentially provide green goods or
services. Not every activity or product in the industries within the
GGS scope is considered green. An establishment classified in one of
these 333 NAICS industries may produce only green goods, both green
and non-green goods, or only non-green goods. Only the employment
associated with the production of green goods and services within
these selected industries is counted as GGS jobs. BLS recognizes that
establishments producing green goods and services may fall outside of
the GGS scope, and the associated employment will not be counted in
the GGS survey results.
GGS Scope
The GGS scope contained 24,060,000 jobs, or 18.8 percent of the
nation's total employment. Of these jobs, GGS estimates that 3,129,100
jobs, or 2.4 percent of total employment, were related to producing
goods and services that met the BLS GGS definition. (For more
information regarding the GGS definition and methodology, please see
the Technical Note.)
Table B. Employment by frame, 2010 annual averages
| Employment |   Percent of
Aggregation	       |   level    | total employment
Total US covered employment(1) |127,820,400 |	   100.0
GGS in-scope(1)		       | 25,513,300 |	    20.0
GGS employment		       |  3,129,100 |	     2.4
1 Source: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
Data Presentation
Data includes GGS employment, GGS employment percentage, and total
QCEW employment by industry and state. The total employment levels are
from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). The QCEW
includes all businesses with employees covered by state or federal
unemployment insurance, which is approximately 95.3 percent of
civilian wage and salary employment in the U.S.
For More Information
The tables and charts included in this release contain data for the
nation and for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data for
2010 green employment levels and percents for all states are provided
in tables 4, 5, and 6 of this release.
For additional information about the Green Goods and Services data,
please read the Technical Note. Further information about the GGS data
may be obtained by calling (202) 691-5185 or by accessing the GGS
website at www.bls.gov/ggs.
Technical Note
This release presents statistics from the Green Goods and Services
program (GGS). GGS employment level and rate estimates are published
by state, ownership, and industry. Data for GGS are collected and
compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from a sample of business
and government establishments in selected industries with workers
covered by state and federal unemployment insurance (UI) legislation
provided by State Workforce Agencies (SWAs).
In an annual survey of business establishments, data are collected for
employment, fiscal year, and the share of revenue or employment
associated with production of green goods or services at the
establishment level. Data collection methods include mail, computer-
assisted telephone interviewing, web, and fax.
BLS sampled from 333 North American Industrial Classification System
(NAICS) industries identified as potential producers or providers of
green goods and services. The GGS survey covers all private
establishments in these industries, such as factories, offices, and
stores, as well as federal, state, and local government entities in
the 50 states and the District of Columbia. For a list of these
industries, please refer to the GGS Web site at www.bls.gov/ggs.
Green Goods and Services. Green goods and services are defined as
goods and services produced by an establishment that benefit the
environment or conserve natural resources. Green goods and services
fall into one or more of the following five groups: (1) production of
energy from renewable sources; (2) energy efficiency; (3) pollution
reduction and removal, greenhouse gas reduction, and recycling and
reuse; (4) natural resources conservation; and (5) environmental
compliance, education and training, and public awareness.
Industry classification. The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2007 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS). Only the 333 industries identified by
BLS as producing green goods and providing green services are included
in the scope of the GGS survey. To ensure the highest possible quality
of data, the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program
verifies with employers and updates, if necessary, the NAICS code,
location, and ownership classification of all establishments on a 3-
year cycle. Changes in establishment characteristics resulting from
the verification process are annually introduced into the GGS sampling
Green Goods and Services jobs. GGS jobs are those associated with
producing green goods or providing green services. Some businesses
produce multiple products and services where one or more may be
included in the BLS definition. For these cases, BLS determined from
prior research that businesses often have difficulty providing
employment associated with the production of green goods and services,
while information on the revenue from the sale of the green goods or
services is more readily available and less burdensome for the
respondent to provide. The percentage of the establishment’s revenue
related to sale of green goods and services is used to estimate GGS
jobs, which are defined as employment related to the production of
green goods and services at the establishment level. Sampled
establishments that do not generate revenue are asked to report the
share of their employment involved with the production of green goods
and services. For example, employment related to research and
development, non-profit organizations, government agencies, and new
businesses may provide green goods and services without generating
Employment. Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the twelfth day of the
reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term,
seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period,
are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are
counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where
they are working. The monthly employment figure provided by
respondents will be compared to employment data BLS has on file as
part of the QCEW program, which comprise BLS’ business register, in
order to verify that data are being collected for the correct
Estimates of GGS employment and GGS percent of total QCEW
employment are released with the annual GGS news release.
Sample and estimation methodology
BLS selects approximately 120,000 GGS establishments per year
from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program.
This program includes all employers subject to state Unemployment
Insurance (UI) laws and federal agencies subject to Unemployment
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE). Most of these
establishments are selected from the second quarter QCEW sample frame,
while a small sample of new business establishments is selected from
the third and fourth quarters. The sample is designed to estimate GGS
employment at both national industry and state industry sector levels
of detail.
Beginning in the second year of collection, the GGS sample will be
divided into three panels, each containing approximately 40,000 sample
units. Two of the three panel samples will overlap with the previous
year’s sample to produce estimates of change in green employment. The
panel that does not overlap will have a new sample allocated and
A Horvitz-Thompson estimator is used to estimate GGS
GGS percentage estimates are relative to the QCEW employment of all
industries contained within a particular estimation cell’s NAICS code,
not just the 333 industries included in the GGS scope. For GGS
employment percentages, the estimate of GGS employment is divided by
the 12-month average of QCEW employment over the reference period.
GGS estimates are subject to both sampling and
nonsampling error. Sampling error arises from selecting a sample of
establishments rather than the entire business population. To measure
this error, GGS uses a balanced repeated replication technique to
calculate standard errors.
At the typical 90% level of confidence used in BLS analyses, there is
approximately a 90% chance that GGS sample-based estimates of GGS
employment will not differ from the true population totals by more
than 1.645 standard errors. Thus, GGS calculates the width of its 90%
confidence interval for total GGS employment as 1.645 multiplied by
the standard error. The confidence interval width of the total GGS
employment estimate is approximately 56,000.
There is about a 90% chance that the true population total of GGS
employment falls within 56,000 of the GGS estimate. For the estimate
of total green percentage, there is about a 90% chance that the GGS
estimate is within 0.03%.
Nonsampling error arises from various sources, such as establishments
failing to respond or misreporting data, coding and data processing
errors and sample coverage. Since GGS only samples establishments in
333 industries predetermined to potentially have GGS employment, any
green goods and services produced or provided in other industries is
not captured. GGS is also subject to errors in the sampling frame, in
which some establishments’ industry codes may be misclassified.
Specialized Procedures
GGS sampling methodology is coordinated with
the Occupational Employment Statistics survey. Sampling overlap
between the two surveys is maximized for additional inference to be
made about green staffing patterns. Such inferences are not included
as part of this GGS release.
Other information
Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.